[] using the “beta.inv” function provided in Microsoft Excel™ to calculate the 95 % inferior and superior credible intervals for the data.

Comparison of the currently reported East Sepik medical plants to the Traditional Medicines Plant Database maintained at UPNG was carried out similarly.

Rapid modernization in the East Sepik (ES) Province of Papua New Guinea (PNG) is resulting in a decrease in individuals knowledgeable in medicinal plant use.

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These references were used to determine if plants collected in the current East Sepik survey work have been previously reported for medicinal use.

Comparison of this East Sepik medicinal plant report to our previous reports from Bougainville [] was accomplished after editing the previous two reports to match the current format, including codes for conditions treated.

The East Sepik Province is situated in the northwest of the country bordered by the West Sepik Province (West), Madang Province (East), the Bismark Sea (North) and Enga Province (South). The 10 % mortality rate for children under 5 years reflects the difficulty of providing adequate health care in the East Sepik Province.

In an effort to supplement health care with effective traditional medicins the University of Papua New Guinea (UPNG), endorsed by the PNG government, struck a collaboration with the WHO to develop reliable traditional medicines (TM) and safe practices (outlined in the 2001–2010 PNG National Health Plan []).

Several instances of previously unreported medicinal plants could be located.

Medicinally under- and over-utilized plants were found both in the regional reports and in a transregional analysis, thus showing that these medicinal utilization frequencies differ between provinces.

This manuscript is based on an annotated combination of four Traditional Medicines (TM) survey reports generated by University of Papua New Guinea (UPNG) trainees.

The surveys utilized a questionnaire titled “Information sheet on traditional herbal preparations and medicinal plants of PNG”, administered in the context of the TM survey project which is supported by WHO, US NIH and PNG governmental health care initiatives and funding.

The specific village communities interviewed included: Bangus and Mariawai villages (DK), Niungweko and Mul (Kunjingini 1) villages (BK); Marambanja, Saina, Ambukanja, Parina, Jawia, Mandien, Bukiendoun, Sausenduon, Hangrerak and Kiarivu villages (GW) and Rumlal, Shagur and Bou villages (MS).